Paul II - Theology of the Body
Truth and Freedom: the
Foundation of True Love
General Audience, May 30, 1984
1. We resume our analysis of the
Song of Songs with the purpose of understanding in a more adequate
and exhaustive way the sacramental sign of marriage. This is
manifested by the language of the body, a singular language of love
originating in the heart.
At a certain point, expressing a particular experience of values
that shines upon everything that relates to the person he loves, the
"You have ravished my heart, my sister, my bride;
you have ravished my heart with one glance of your eyes,
with one bead of your necklace.
How sweet are your caresses, my sister, my bride..." (Sg 4:9-10).
From these words emerges what is of essential importance for the
theology of the body—and in this case for the theology of the
sacramental sign of marriage—to know who the female "you" is for the
male "I" and vice versa.
The groom in the Song of Songs exclaims: "You are all-beautiful, my
beloved" (Sg 4:7) and calls her "my sister, my bride" (Sg 4:9). He
does not call her by her name, but he uses expressions that say
Under a certain aspect, compared with the name "beloved," the name
"sister" that is used for the bride seems to be more eloquent and
rooted in the sum total of the Song, which illustrates how love
reveals the other person.
Openness toward others
2. The term "beloved" indicates what is always essential for love,
which puts the second "I" beside one's own "I." Friendship—love of
friendship (amor amicitiae)—signifies in the Song a particular
approach felt and experienced as an interiorly unifying power. The
fact that in this approach that female "I" is revealed for her groom
as "sister"—and that precisely as both sister and bride—has a
special eloquence. The expression "sister" speaks of the union in
mankind and at the same time of her difference and feminine
originality. This is not only with regard to sex, but to the very
way of "being person," which means both "being subject" and "being
in relationship." The term "sister" seems to express, in a more
simple way, the subjectivity of the female "I" in personal
relationship with the man, that is, in the openness of him toward
others, who are understood and perceived as brothers. The sister in
a certain sense helps man to identify himself and conceive of
himself in this way, constituting for him a kind of challenge in
3. The groom in the Song accepts the challenge and seeks the common
past, as though he and his woman were descended from the same family
circle, as though from infancy they were united by memories of a
common home. So they mutually feel as close as brother and sister
who owe their existence to the same mother. From this a specific
sense of common belonging follows. The fact that they feel like
brother and sister allows them to live their mutual closeness in
security and to manifest it, finding support in that, and not
fearing the unfair judgment of other men.
Through the name "sister," the groom's words tend to reproduce, I
would say, the history of the femininity of the person loved. They
see her still in the time of girlhood and they embrace her entire
"I," soul and body, with a disinterested tenderness. Hence there
arises that peace which the bride speaks of. This is the peace of
the body, which in appearance resembles sleep ("Do not arouse, do
not stir up love before its own time"). This is above all the peace
of the encounter in mankind as the image of God—and the encounter by
means of a reciprocal and disinterested gift. ("So am I in your
eyes, like one who has found peace", Sg 8:10.)
Awareness of mutual belonging
4. In relation to the preceding plot, which could be called a
"fraternal" plot, another plot emerges in the loving duet of the
Song of Songs, another substratum of the content. We can examine it
by starting from certain sayings that seem to have a key
significance in the poem. This plot never emerges explicitly, but
through the whole composition, and is expressly manifested only in a
few passages. So the groom says:
"You are an enclosed garden, my sister, my bride,
an enclosed garden, a fountain sealed" (Sg 4:12).
The metaphors just read, an "enclosed garden, a fountain sealed,"
reveal the presence of another vision of the same female "I," master
of her own mystery. We can say that both metaphors express the
personal dignity of the woman who as a spiritual subject is in
possession and can decide not only on the metaphysical depth, but
also on the essential truth and authenticity of the gift of herself,
inclined to that union which Genesis speaks of.
The language of metaphors—poetic language—seems to be in this sphere
especially appropriate and precise. The "sister bride" is for the
man the master of her own mystery as a "garden enclosed" and a
"fountain sealed." The language of the body reread in truth keeps
pace with the discovery of the interior inviolability of the person.
At the same time, this discovery expresses the authentic depth of
the mutual belonging of the spouses who are aware of belonging to
each other, of being destined for each other: "My lover belongs to
me and I to him" (Sg 2:16; cf. 6:3).
5. This awareness of mutual belonging resounds especially on the
lips of the bride. In a certain sense, with these words she responds
to the groom's words with which he acknowledged her as the master of
her own mystery. When the bride says, "My lover belongs to me," she
means at the same time, "It is he to whom I entrust myself."
Therefore she says, "and I to him" (Sg 2:16). The words "to me" and
"to him" affirm here the whole depth of that entrustment, which
corresponds to the interior truth of the person.
It likewise corresponds to the nuptial significance of femininity in
relation to the male "I," that is, to the language of the body
reread in the truth of personal dignity.
The groom states this truth with the metaphors of the "garden
enclosed" and the "fountain sealed." The bride answers him with the
words of the gift, that is, the entrustment of herself. As master of
her own choice she says, "I belong to my lover." The Song of Songs
subtly reveals the interior truth of this response. The freedom of
the gift is the response to the deep awareness of the gift expressed
by the groom's words. Through this truth and freedom that love is
built up, which we must affirm is authentic love.
Taken from: L'Osservatore Romano Weekly Edition in English 4 June
1984, page 3
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